NACW

22 de janeiro de 2014

REDD Skies: Developing Sub-National REDD+ Policies

Over the next decade, California may play a unique role in helping to advance state-level REDD+ initiatives. In forums such as the Governor’s Climate and Forest Task Force (GCF) and REDD Offsets Working Group (ROW), policymakers in California and around the world are grappling with a wide range of critical issues, including finance, safeguards, reference levels, monitoring, reporting and verification. Panelists in this session will discuss ongoing efforts to build sub-national REDD+ policies and programs linked to California and beyond.

Fonte : http://www.nacw2012.com/speaker/lopes

New Report Released Outlining Roadmap for How States and Provinces Can Reduce Tropical Deforestation and Link With California’s Cap and Trade Program

24 de fevereiro de 2013

An expert panel convening for two years released its draft recommendations, and schedule for upcoming workshops, on how the state of Acre in Brazil and the State of Chiapas in Mexico could link efforts to reduce deforestation with the State of California’s cap and trade system.  Tropical deforestation now accounts for 10-15% of all global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—more than the entire global transportation sector and second only to the energy sector.  Any state or national effort to reduce GHG emissions needs to consider how REDD+ can be part of global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation.

The expert panel, titled the REDD+ Offset Working Group (or ROW), was created in 2011 through a Memorandum of Understanding signed between Acre, California and Chiapas.  The three states requested the ROW to develop a set of recommendations on how to design a compliance-grade jurisdictional (state or province-wide) system to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) and how to link this program to California’s cap and trade system.  The report outlines how the states could link their programs through the use of carbon offsets within California’s cap and trade system using a jurisdictional approach, which has higher hurdles for states to participate in comparison to project-only offset programs.

“These recommendations are a pathway for states and provinces to provide leadership in reducing deforestation and reducing GHGs while benefitting local communities,” said Dan Nepstad, ROW Member and International Program Director for the Amazon Institute of Environmental Research.  “We think these recommendations continue California’s leadership role in climate policy”.

The report recommendations were developed in part based on the specific experiences of the three MOU states, but are not intended to be exclusive to these jurisdictions. The recommendations focus on three areas including:

1.      Program Architecture: scope of eligible REDD+ activities, reference levels and additionality, crediting pathways, registry infrastructure, state-level accounting, and systems for measurement monitoring, reporting, and verification;

2.      Social and environmental safeguards: to ensure communities and environments benefit from any offset program; and

3.      Legal and institutional issues associated with efforts to link GHG reduction efforts in subnational jurisdictions in foreign countries.

“The issues we tackled in this report are meant to provide clear guidance in creating quality jurisdictional programs that are ready for linkage with California today,” said Greg Asner, ROW Member and Professor at Stanford University.  “We believe the mix of these recommendations with the current technology available to monitor, track and report deforestation around the globe are a recipe for success.”

The release of the ROW report coincided with the announcement of three workshops to be hosted through April of 2013 to collect stakeholder comments and to educate anyone interested on REDD+ issues.  The three workshops will be held at Stanford (February 5th), the University of California, Davis (March 26th) and the University of California, Los Angeles (April 5th).  Details on these workshops as well as instructions for filing comments on the ROW report can be found at www.stateredd.org. Based on feedback received, the ROW intends to publish a final, revised report for submission to the Governments of Acre, California, and Chiapas by Summer 2013.

The draft report released today builds upon work  by the Governor’s Climate Forests Task Force (GCF), which is a unique subnational collaboration between 19 states and provinces from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Spain, and the United States working since 2009 to advance jurisdictional REDD+ programs.

ROW Members & Contact Information

  • ·         Daniel Nepstad, International Program Director, Amazon Institute of Environmental Research
  • ·         Derik Broekhoff, Vice President for Policy, Climate Action Reserve
  • ·         Greg P. Asner, Professor of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University; Scientist at Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology
  • ·         Ludovino Lopes, Consultant to the Secretary of Environment for the State of Acre
  • ·         Michelle Passero, Senior Climate Policy Advisor, The Nature Conservancy
  • ·         Peter Riggs, Independent consultant, formerly of Ford Foundation
  • ·         Rosa Maria Vidal, Director, Pronatura Sur, Chiapas, Mexico
  • ·         Steve Schwartzman, Director for Tropical Forest Policy, Environmental Defense Fund
  • ·         Toby Janson-Smith, Senior Director of Forest Carbon Markets, Conservation International
  • ·         William Boyd, Associate Professor of Law, University of Colorado Law School, Colorado; Senior Advisor & Project Lead: Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force
  • ·         Tony Brunello (Facilitator), Green Technology Leadership Group

Posted by : Ludovino Lopes

Source : www.stateredd.org

Mapa da Legislação de Mudança de Clima dos Estados Brasileiros

6 de novembro de 2012

O Observatório de Politicas Publicas de Mudanças Climáticas (iniciativa do Fórum Clima em parceria com o Núcleo de Economia Socioambiental da Faculdade de Economia da USP (NESA), sob a coordenacao do professor Dr. Ricardo Abramovay) criou um website que apresenta o monitoramento e a difusão de informações sobre políticas estaduais de mudanças climáticas. O mapeamento abaixo é realizado por meio do acesso aos marcos regulatório de cada uma das 27 Unidades da Federação, além de eventuais contatos com os gestores locais da agenda do clima. Veja no link :

http://forumempresarialpeloclima.org.br/observatorio-de-politicas-publicas-de-mudancas-climaticas/

Posted by: Ludovino Lopes

Source: http://forumempresarialpeloclima.org.br/o-forum/


Certificado ‘verde’ medirá ganhos da economia digital

27 de julho de 2012

A partir de 2013, governo e empresas poderão medir os impactos sociais, ambientais e financeiros da substituição do uso de papel, redução do consumo de energia e combustíveis ou melhorias logísticas – uma forma de incentivar e recompensar atividades que se adaptam à economia sustentável.

“É algo inusitado. Mas hoje um dos principais ponto de apelo dos modelos de produção tem a ver com a eficiência dos projetos, seja energética, papel, combustível. Isso está no DNA da economia digital, pelo uso de certificados digitais, que desmaterializam processos, ou mesmo nas vendas eletrônicas, que dispensam embalagens. O objetivo é trazer para a sociedade benefícios que hoje não são mensuráveis”, diz o presidente da Câmara Brasileira de Comércio Eletrônico (Camara-e.net), Ludovino Lopes.

A proposta, oficialmente apresentada durante a Rio+20, já começa a ser desenhada formalmente, inicialmente por um grupo técnico que vai elaborar as métricas e, a partir daí, com o desenvolvimento efetivo de um sistema de certificação das empresas que adotam medidas de sustentabilidade.

“Vamos transformar esses ativos em métricas que possam ser quantificadas. Ou seja, não se trata mais de só dizer que medidas ambientais são boas, mas demonstrar o quanto isso significa. E poder incluir isso em balanços sociais e ambientais, mas também financeiros”, explica o presidente da Camara-e.net.

Ele lembra que no caso da redução de emissões, já existe um mercado internacional de créditos de carbono – ou seja, monetização efetiva de medidas ambientais. Mas os incentivos não para aí. “Ter um programa de redução de consumo de energia também já pode levar uma empresa a uma classificação diferente na bolsa de valores”, completa Ludovino Lopes.

Para construir as métricas e o sistema de cerficação, a Camara-e.net associou-se ao Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia da Informação (ITI), órgão ligado à Casa Civil da Presidência da República e o principal responsável pelas políticas de certificação digital no Brasil.

“Um sistema como esse dá um impacto social às tecnologias digitais. Só o governo federal consome um trilhão de folhas de papel por ano. E isso é desnecessário, porque temos a tecnologia, a base jurídica e a Internet, capazes de substituir o papel”, afirma o presidente do ITI, Renato Martini.

Casos concretos inspiram o modelo proposto. Um deles é da rede de supermercados Tesco, que na Coreia do Sul desenvolveu um sistema de vendas com uso de smartphones a partir de displays colocados em estações de metrô. Para comprar, os clientes tiram fotos de QR Codes associados aos produtos e agendam o horário de entrega.

“A Tesco era a terceira rede da Coreia e já está encostando na primeira sem abrir uma única loja nova”, cita Ludovino Lopes. “A agência ambiental dos Estados Unidos afirma que o impacto do e-commerce pode resultar em uma redução de um terço na construção de grandes shoppings”, insiste, demonstrando os efeitos dessa nova economia.

Ao longo dos próximos 30 dias o grupo técnico do projeto vai identificar as métricas associadas ao projeto e, a partir daí, haverá parcerias com universidades para o desenvolvimento da certificação. O grupo é coordenado pela Imprensa Nacional e reúne desde empresas de varejo a aquelas típicas de tecnologia, como Microsoft e Certisign. “Nosso prazo é agressivo. Até janeiro teremos a metodologia pronta”, afirma Lopes.

Fonte :: Luís Osvaldo Grossmann
:: Convergência Digital :: 23/07/2012

http://convergenciadigital.uol.com.br/cgi/cgilua.exe/sys/start.htm?infoid=31228&sid=3&utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter

Posted by : Ludovino Lopes

Launched the World Bank – State and Trends of the Carbon Market Report 2012

1 de junho de 2012

2012 State & Trends

Launch of the 2012 State and Trends of the Carbon Market Report:

The 2012 report describes a carbon market that grew in total value by

11% in 2011, to $176 billion, and where transaction volumes reached

a new high of 10.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e).

However, as expected, the market for primary CDM has dropped to its

lowest level since 2004. This is linked to declining demand of offsets due to

economic turbulence, a growing long-term oversupply of carbon offsets

in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and plummeting prices.

While the near-term outlook for the carbon market remains gloomy, the

light on the horizon is the development of new domestic and regional

market mechanisms such as those passed in Australia, California, Quebec, Mexico and South Korea…

To see the Full Report go to

http://siteresources.worldbank.org

Posted by: Ludovino Lopes

Source:
http://web.worldbank.orgl

IPBES established: “Today, biodiversity won”

27 de abril de 2012
Created on Monday, 23 April 2012 03:38

IMG 8791-lb

IPBES was established by more than 90 Governments in Panama City on Saturday 21 April, after several years of international negotiations.

“Today, biodiversity won”, said the chair of the meeting, Sir Robert Watson, Chief Scientific Advisor of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of the United Kingdom. “Biodiversity and ecosystem services are essential for human wellbeing. This platform will generate the knowledge and build the capacity to protect them for this and future generations.”

The German city of Bonn won the bid to host the secretariat of the new independent body.

Fore more information, see:
- the full press release in English and Spanish;
IISD’s coverage of the meeting and the ENB summary report for the meeting.

Posted by : Ludovino Lopes

Source: http://www.ipbes.net/news-centre11/229-ipbes-established-today-biodiversity-won.html

Mexico passes climate-change law

25 de abril de 2012

As the Kyoto Protocol winds down without a strong replacement, countries are implementing their own strategies to reduce global warming.

MEXICO CITY

As the 11th largest emitter of carbon worldwide, Mexico has passed a law requiring a 50% reduction in emissions below 2000 levels over the next 40 years.

CARLOS CAZALIS/CORBIS

The Mexican legislature passed one of the strongest national climate-change laws so far on 19 April. Mexico, which ranks 11th in the world for both the size of its economy and its level of carbon emissions, joins the United Kingdom in having legally binding emissions goals aimed at stemming the effects of climate change.

After three years of debate and revisions, the bill passed in Mexico’s lower house with a vote of 128 for and 10 against, and was later passed unanimously by the Senate. The new law contains many sweeping provisions to mitigate climate change, including a mandate to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by 30% below business-as-usual levels by 2020, and by 50% below 2000 levels by 2050.

Furthermore, it stipulates that 35% of the country’s electricity should come from renewable sources by 2024, and requires mandatory emissions reporting by the country’s largest polluters. The act also establishes a commission to oversee implementation, and encourages development of a carbon-trading scheme. Although there was initial resistance from Mexico’s steel and cement industries, the bill passed with bipartisan support.

Global trend

Experts say that Mexico’s climate bill reflects a global trend in which individual states and countries, frustrated with stalled United Nations climate agreements, have begun implementing their own emissions regulations.

“It’s at the domestic level that the rubber hits the road. The actions we need to see at this stage are more in the nation’s capitals than in the UN negotiations,” says Elliot Diringer, vice-president of the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions in Arlington, Virginia. “The international regime is not very effective at driving domestic action. And that was the theory behind Kyoto.”

In recent years, countries such as Australia, South Korea and China have all taken steps to create their own standards and goals for mitigating climate change, including the establishment of carbon markets. Although some observers have called this a failure of multinational climate agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol, others say that it is a more effective ‘portfolio’ approach, whereby a suite of different plans spread risks across individual countries.

“These sorts of things actually make me feel very positive,” says Mark Maslin, a geographer at University College London. He suggests that Mexico taking the lead on climate change is probably more important than the UK doing so, noting that many observers would expect Britain to take a stance on climate: “It’s very easy to look … and say ‘they are a bunch of liberals, they care about the planet and they can afford to’.”

Despite the rosy assessments, however, this portfolio approach may face some of the same hurdles as the international efforts. “We’re very good at making laws. And then the problem is enforcing them,” says Juan Bezaury, an expert in Mexican public policy with the Nature Conservancy in Arlington. He adds that the new law is “only the first phase of a complete legal overhaul for Mexico. It deals with the environment, it deals with energy, it deals with human settlements, it deals with health issues, it deals with a whole lot of stuff”.

He compares the bill to a skeleton on which many other laws must be hung. One of those is Mexico’s REDD+ policy (for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation). The policy creates a monetary value for carbon in forests, and attempts to give people living in those regions a financial incentive to preserve rather than cut down virgin forest — either by being paid to save the trees or by harvesting sustainably. But REDD programmes have been dogged by controversy over the models used to calculate the value of carbon in forests, and over how the scheme is run.

“The projected carbon savings are created through modelling. And those models have a lot of uncertainty,” says Ana Peña del Valle, a scientist at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the country’s largest university. “We have quite a bit of concern with the way the risks related to REDD are shared between sellers and buyers. Because so far, the risk schemes are focused more on protecting the buyers.”

Despite concerns about Mexico’s ability to enforce the legislation, experts point out that the bill can already be seen as a successful response to the 2010 UN Climate Change Conference in Cancún.

“Mexico was widely credited for helping to rescue the international effort in Cancún. But some noted the lack of corresponding action domestically. Now Mexico has something to show at home too,” says Diringer.

Posted by Ludovino Lopes

Source : http://www.nature.com/news/mexico-passes-climate-change-law-1.10496

Ley General de Cambio Climatico Mexico (follow the link):

http://www.alexdelmazo.com/diputado/pdf/LALEYGENERALDECAMBIOCLIMATICO2012.pdf

REDD Skies: Developing Sub-National REDD+ Policies – San Francisco California – NACW 2012

3 de abril de 2012

Over the next decade, California may play a unique role in helping to advance state-level REDD+ initiatives. In forums such as the Governor’s Climate and Forest Task Force (GCF) and REDD Offsets Working Group (ROW), policymakers in California and around the world are grappling with a wide range of critical issues, including finance, safeguards, reference levels, monitoring, reporting and verification. Ludovino Lopes wil be panelist in the NACW 2012 Seminar between 10th and 12th April – San Francisco – California discussing ongoing efforts to build sub-national REDD+ policies and programs linked to California and beyond.

See http://www.nacw2012.com/speaker/lopes and http://www.nacw2012.com/

Mecanismo para redução de emissões de gases estufa está em coma…

6 de setembro de 2011

Wenderson Araujo

O Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL), instituído pelo Protocolo de Kyoto para auxiliar países desenvolvidos a alcançarem suas metas de redução de emissões de gases estufa – e promover o desenvolvimento em nações em desenvolvimento – está em risco. “O MDL não faleceu, mas está tecnicamente em coma. Suas condições de sobrevivência estão em análise. Prova disso é que ele representou apenas 1% das transações no mercado de carbono mundial no ano passado”, afirma Ludovino Lopes, advogado especialista em direito ambiental. Durante palestra na tarde desta segunda-feira (5/9), no Fórum Internacional de Estudos Estratégicos para o Desenvolvimento Agropecuário e Respeito ao Clima (Feed 2011), promovido pela Confederação da Agricultura e Pecuária do Brasil (CNA), em São Paulo (SP). Para Lopes, o mercado de carbono é um mosaico, com demandas múltiplas. “Formas voluntárias de compensação, caso doRedd [Redução das Emissões por Desmatamento e Degradação], estão crescendo e vão sobreviver a este processo”, prevê.

Estima-se que 46% dos créditos transacionados no mercado voluntário de carbono em 2010 tenham relação com a terra – sendo 29% ligados ao Redd, número que deve crescer para 50% este ano. “Florestas e agricultura representam, juntas, 32% das emissões globais de gases estufa. Trabalhar esse número pode ser uma forma mais rápida de baixar as emissões do planeta, e também de custo mais acessível”, diz o advogado. E há iniciativas localizadas de grande potencial, a exemplo da parceria entre o estado brasileiro do Acre, de Chiapas, no México, e da Califórnia, nos Estados Unidos. Em fevereiro deste ano, as três localidades assinaram um acordo de cooperação técnica e científica, que tem o objetivo de gerar créditos de carbono a partir de reflorestamento e manejo florestais no Acre e em Chiapas para vendê-los à Califórnia, no âmbito do Redd. O projeto deve ser colocado em prática já em janeiro de 2012.

Rodrigo Lima, gerente-geral do Instituto de Estudos do Comércio e Negociações Internacionais (Icone), ressaltou a importância do Redd Plus, cujo escopo foi definido durante a 16ª Convenção da ONU sobre Mudanças Climáticas (COP-16), com a redução das emissões florestais relacionadas à diminuição do desmatamento e da degradação florestal, manejo florestal sustentável e, como novidades, as salvaguardas (como a proteção a povos indígenas e à biodiversidade) e a ênfase no financiamento. Estima-se que já tenham sido concedidos algo em torno de US$ 8,35 bilhões para projetos Redd Plus no mundo. Na avaliação de Lima, a COP-17, marcada para novembro, na África do Sul, deve ter papel essencial para o contínuo ganho de força dessas iniciativas. “A questão do financiamento segue como fundamental, aliado ao fato de que é preciso olhar com mais atenção para as áreas privadas, onde hoje estão os maiores remanescentes de vegetação nativa, mas que ainda não são elegíveis para o Redd”, diz.

De acordo com o professor da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiróz (Esalq/USP), Gerd Sparovek, somente 170 de um total de 537 milhões de hectares da vegetação nativa do Brasil estão em unidades de conservação no país – o que indica que o maior estoque está mesmo nas propriedades agrícolas. “Por isso, a redução da exigência para a reserva legal e as áreas de preservação permanente [APPs] deve ampliar a falta de proteção a essa mata. A situação já está difícil com as leis vigentes e pode piorar com a aprovação do novo código florestal”, adverte.

Para Sparovek, o pagamento por florestas em pé, a modernização e a elevação da produtividade agrícola e a regularização fundiária são questões que devem entrar na agenda comum da sociedade, na busca pela redução das emissões. “Essas soluções poderiam estar sendo promovidas de forma propositiva, não deixando que conflitos de interesses interfiram”, afirma.

Posted by – Ludovino Lopes

Fonte:  http://revistagloborural.globo.com

AUSTRALIA’S NATIONAL CARBON TAX: AN EXAMPLE FOR OTHER COUNTRIES TO FOLLOW?

13 de agosto de 2011

After announcing plans to introduce a nation-wide carbon tax scheme, Australia is set to take center stage internationally.

Prime Minister Julia Gillard recently announced an emissions trading program that will take the form of both a carbon tax and a cap-and-trade system.  The comprehensive plan, which has few carbon policy rivals, will set a price of A$23 for every ton of carbon starting in July 2012.  Prime Minister Gillard says the new policy will cut Australia’s emissions by by 160 million tons by 2020.

Since announcing the program, the Prime Minister has been traveling the nation, selling Australians on the scheme, which her opponents have labeled as a redistribution of wealth that will not effect climate change.

It appears to be a hard sell, as a recent Galaxy Poll for the Sydney Heraldshows her popularity has dipped significantly since the carbon tax was announced.  Nevertheless, as Ms. Gillard has been espousing to the masses, her administration is putting deeds behind their words, and making a clean energy future a reality for Australia.  Through a coalition between the Prime Minister’s Labour Party and the Greens Party, the carbon scheme is expected to pass through the legislature.

In its infancy, the carbon tax will focus on 500 major emitters; these chosen ones will have to pay $23 for every ton of carbon they produce.  The price of carbon will increase incrementally over the first three years of the plan.  After three years, the scheme will move toward a more traditional cap-and-trade program, where the market will set the price for carbon.  Some economists estimate, when opened up to the free market, the carbon price could rise as high as $50.

Emitters will push the new costs on consumers.  As a result electricity bills are expected to rise 10%, gas prices 9%, and food prices 0.5%.  To offset these costs the government will reimburse low-income and medium-income households as well as reduce income tax rates.

Major trade-exposed industries such as coal and steel will be compensated in order to ensure their competitiveness and allow for  them to transition toward lower-carbon production.  The government has set up a $10 billion compensation fund for these industries.  For example, the electricity industry will be given $5.5 billion over the first six years of the program.  Coal and steel will be given financial assistance outside of this funding.

In order to spur development of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies to help meet the country’s target of reducing its emissions by 80% of their 2000 levels by 2050, the government has created a $10 billion Clean Energy Finance Corporation, which will provide funding and support for these industries in conjunction with the Australian Renewable Energy Agency, which has $3.2 billion at its disposal.

With this policy, Australia is taking a leading role in energy politics.  Since 2005, the European Union has operated anemissions trading scheme.  Other countries have instituted policies on a state or provincial level.  Sitting way behind the curve is the United States, which saw its most progressive energy policy, one that included a cap-and-trade program, die in the legislature in 2009.  Currently, the world’s second largest emitter has one regional area which has established a carbon trading scheme.

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, currently comprised of ten states along the northeast coast, has set a cap on carbon emissions and established a regulatory body to enforce the scheme.  However, RGGI’s existence sits in a tenuous spot, asseveral member states have considered leaving the initiative.  Meanwhile, New Jersey’s legislature has successfully voted to remove the state from RGGI.

On the other side of the country, another regional carbon regulatory framework is trying to establish itself — the Western Climate Initiative, which is comprised of several U.S. states along with Canadian provinces.

The WCI has set a goal of reducing emissions 15% below 2005 levels by 2020.  A major part of achieving this reduction is by instituting a carbon trading scheme.  Although governors of these jurisdictions have pledged their support for the initiative, few have moved forward with passing the necessary legislation.  Earlier this week, Quebec announced its plans to implement acap-and-trade program by 2013.  This will allow it to join California as the only WCI partners to pass the necessary cap-and-trade legislation.

The world’s eyes, as well as those of RGGI and the WCI, will surely be focused on Australia’s energy policy, as it will provide another litmus test for lawmakers.  Perhaps, it will be the example which leads the United States to move beyond regional carbon regulation schemes and, instead, toward a comprehensive national plan.

Source : http://www.energyboom.com/policy/australias-national-carbon-tax-example-other-countries-follow

Author : Nathanael Baker – Managing Editor of EnergyBoom

Posted by : Ludovino Lopes